To understand individual differences in pain in children, adolescents, and adults we use:

* Quantitative sensory testing, using various measures (e.g., detection thresholds, pain thresholds, pain tolerance, pain ratings of suprathreshold noxious stimuli, excitatory and inhibitory pain modulation responses) and modalities (e.g., thermal, mechanical).

* Structural and functional neuroimaging, including neural measures of grey matter volume, brain activation during rest or task, functional connectivity during rest or task.

* Hormonal testing, mainly sex hormone levels (e.g., testosterone, estrogen, progesterone

* Surveys, for psychological factors (e.g., depression, anxiety) and behavioral factors (e.g., sleep, exercise, diet)